Recycling Is Broken. Here’s How We Can Fix It.

We’ve all been there. You’ve just finished
a delicious snack, empty container in hand, and you have to make a decision: Does this
belong in the trash can or recycling bin? Throw it away, and it’s doomed to sit in
a landfill for the next 500 or so years. Or throw it in the recycling bin, and it happily
makes its way to a local recycling plant where magic happens and it’s repurposed into more
happy containers that will make other people happy one day. You’ve saved the world from another piece
of trash. Cue the sunshine, the rainbows, and the smiling bunnies. If everyone would
just put more in the recycling bin instead of the trash can, the world would be a better
place. Except that’s not exactly true. By throwing
this in the recycling bin, you’ve actually created more trash. You’ve also made it
harder to recycle the stuff that can be saved, and basically demonstrated that recycling
is broken. At least the way we do it today. Luckily, we can fix it. [OPEN] Hey smart people, Joe here. Why do we recycle? Because it’s one of the
best ways for you to have a direct impact on the environment. It means taking fewer
raw materials out of the earth, less energy and pollution to make new stuff, and most
of all, less trash. It may seem like recycling is a product of
modern environmental movements, but people have been recycling for as long as they’ve
been making stuff. Before the industrial revolution, most goods and raw materials were hard to
come by, so people recycled as much as they could at home or at work, everything from
scrap metal to old clothes. But unlike the Olden Dayes, we need recycling
today because we make so much stuff. The economic boom after WWII created a tidal wave of quick
and cheap goods. And suddenly it made more economic sense to throw many old items away
and just buy new ones. Unfortunately, if the movie Wall-E taught us one thing, it’s with
a growing population and limited resources, we can’t continue that cycle forever. The good news is we’re recycling a bigger
fraction of our waste every year. In 2017, Americans recycled 35% of our waste, and EU
countries recycled 46% of theirs. Back in 1960, 94% of solid waste generated
in the US ended up in landfills. But in 2017, it was just 52%.
And EU countries do even better, only sending a quarter of their solid waste to landfills
today. But even though we’re recycling more, we’re
making so much waste these days that Americans are still throwing away more total tons of
waste than we used to. So what can we do? The reason so many people recycle today is
thanks to “single stream recycling”. It’s easy: You put everything in one bin and send
it off for someone else to figure out. In fact, around ⅔ of people say they wouldn’t
recycle at all if it wasn’t so easy. But in order for that to work, someone has
to sort all this, into this. Then it goes from a sorting facility, it’s put together
with other stuff of that kind, and is sold by the ton in a global market, often shipped
overseas, to be reprocessed back into raw materials, which are then sold to manufacturers
who make new stuff out of it. We’re actually pretty good at recycling
materials like aluminum or glass. They can often be recycled back into the same stuff
you started with. But many materials can really only be recycled into lower value products.
That’s called “downcycling”. Paper and plastic are the real troublemakers here, because
pretty quickly you just can’t downcycle a material any further. It’s really convenient to be able to get
rid of all this stuff in one environmentally friendly-colored bin, right? But single stream
recycling has made things SO easy, if people aren’t a hundred percent sure if something
can actually be recycled, they just throw it in the bin anyway. It’s called “aspirational
recycling” or “wishcycling”. I’m definitely guilty of doing this and I bet you are too. And as a result, according to the National
Waste and Recycling Association, about 25 percent of the stuff we try to recycle is
so contaminated it just goes straight to the landfill. That contamination comes in the
form of things that can’t be recycled, like plastic bags, which just clog up the machines
that sort this stuff. Yeah, you thought you were being nice and tidy by putting your recycling
in a bag, but what you actually did was get that whole bag thrown away. Or diapers. People are actually trying to
recycle diapers. Used ones. That is just wrong on so many levels. But a lot of the contamination comes from
things that technically can be recycled, if they weren’t so dirty. And our food container
is a perfect example here. Waste plastic like this gets ground up into tiny pieces and sold
by the ton. But when I throw this in the recycling bin covered in food residue (or with foil
lid still on) it all gets ground up together. That food and metal contamination can ruin
the whole batch, because before this plastic can be repurposed into something new, it has
to be a certain purity, and in many cases it’s so expensive to clean and purify it
that the recycling companies can’t make money on it, and it just ends up being thrown
away. Greasy pizza boxes? Contaminated garbage. Paper drink cups? They’ve actually got a
thin plastic or wax lining that most recyclers can’t separate out, so they get thrown away
most of the time too. Which really makes you think… Where was I? Oh yeah. Modern recycling became
so widespread because countries like China were there to buy our reusable trash. But
trying to recycle contaminated paper and plastic was creating a whole new environmental problem
in these countries, and in 2018 China said “nope!” and they banned their recyclers
from buying our contaminated plastic and paper. And other countries like Malaysia have since
followed their lead. China was the biggest buyer of the world’s
reusable trash, so this has completely messed up the economics of recycling across Europe
and the US. Now more stuff is going from recycling centers straight into landfills and some cities
have even stopped recycling altogether. The very thing that makes single stream recycling
so successful–how easy it is for us–has become its Achilles heel, because we’ve
made our recycling so dirty that it just became more trash. So how do we fix it? Well, it’s on us. The
most important thing we can do is only recycle what can actually be recycled. Plastic is pretty confusing stuff. Not only
because it used to be oil, but now it’s solid, and you can carry milk in it… (aside:
I’ll figure that out someday) but also because there’s more than one type of plastic. Luckily,
each type is labeled with a “resin identification code” that helps you figure out what to
do with it. Numbers 1, 2 and 5 have a pretty good market
in the U.S. for recycling. Water and soda bottles, milk jugs, laundry detergent, yogurt
cups and stuff like that are mostly made of these plastics. But they’re only recyclable
if they’re clean! You don’t need to wash it with the dishes, just rinse out any food,
and remove any labels or foil and these are good to go Numbers 4, 6 and 7 are things like squeezable
bottles, plastic bags, and many of the disposable plates and cups and takeout containers you
get. These items are typically sent to a landfill and not recycled at all. Number 3 is plastic like PVC pipes, and this
is just not recycled. I don’t know why you’d have a bunch of pipes around unless you’re
a plumber, but just don’t put any PVC in your recycling! Glass and aluminum? Give ‘em a rinse and
these are pretty much good to go. But try not to break your glass if you can help it. As for paper? Used napkins or greasy cardboard
like pizza boxes usually can’t be recycled. But they can be composted, if that’s available
where you live. Paper cups and to-go containers with those plastic linings? More and more
places are starting to recycle these using new technology, but before you put them in
the bin, check to see what the guidelines are where you live. In fact, the best thing you can do in general
is to learn what can be recycled where YOU live. There’s no perfect set of rules I
can give you, because the rules are different everywhere. So go to the website of your local
recycler, or even call them on the phone if talking to actual humans is your thing, and
find out. You can also look for special recycling drop-off locations for odd items like batteries
or styrofoam. And if you’re ever in doubt if something
can be recycled, don’t put it in the recycling bin. I know it feels weird, but sometimes
you really are better off just throwing it away than contaminating a whole truck-worth
of recycling with six months worth of plastic bags you have stashed under the kitchen sink.
I know that’s where you’re hiding them. Most of us have a constant stream of packaged
goods coming into our lives, designed to be used one time, and thrown away. Perhaps the
best thing you can do is know what you can recycle before you buy stuff, and don’t
buy stuff that you can’t recycle. The recycling symbol is one of the most recognizable
logos ever created. It was designed in 1970 to honor the very first Earth Day. The three
arrows in this environmental Möbius strip are now taken to represent three words: Reduce,
Re-use, and Recycle. Today, we tend to focus mostly on the third
one: Recycle. But since that first Earth Day, recycling was always intended to be just one
part of this three-step process. To truly get rid of waste, and to keep our environment
as clean as we can, recycling just isn’t enough on its own. We also have to reduce the amount of waste
we create in the first place, by either buying items with less packaging, or asking manufacturers
to consider waste when they design their packages and products. And we should reuse whatever we can too. [beat]
Well, maybe not… whatever we can. Recycling alone can’t solve our waste problem.
And I want to put something into perspective to prove that to you. Since plastic was invented,
8.3 billion metric tons of new plastics have been produced. And 6.3 billion metric tons
of plastic waste has been generated. Only 9% of that has been recycled, ever. While
79% of it has piled up in landfills or the environment.
According to researchers, 4 to 12 million metric tons of plastic waste entered oceans
in 2010 alone. And by 2050, there will be 12 billion metric tons of plastic in landfills.
That amount is 35,000 times as massive as the Empire State Building. And there’s no recycling system or technology
imaginable that can get us out from under all that weight. But we can choose to stop
burying ourselves. Stay curious.

Bernard Jenkins


  1. So… how are you going to become a better recycler? Check the description for some helpful links on how to do it

  2. Why isn't this kind of stuff being taught in schools, for crying out loud? 🙁 I somehow still thought recycling was doing better than this. You're very right, educating yourself about what stuff can be recycled where you live is important, but I think just as important – more so maybe! – is making sure EVERYONE gets a better education as regards how to recycle responsibly, AND how to re-use and reduce as well. Not to mention, there needs to be a fourth R now – to repair what damage we've already done.

  3. For economic reasons like it bring cheaper to make money plastics than recycling as well as waste companies doing both trash and recycling it's cheaper to dump the process.
    The tote bags meant to replace the plastic bag are now mass produced and some study showed it takes like 600+uses of this tote bag to equal the energy of using a one plastic bag because making the bags has become so optimized

  4. Also need to implement organic recycling like food and paper. Can get processed to fuel or fertlizer.
    They should make manufacturers pay a tax if they don't use certain easily recyclable material.
    Like the plastic soda bottle with a different plastic bottle cap.
    Reuse would be nice lot other countries reuse the glass soda bottles

  5. HAH! You're WRONG! I hide my plastic bags in a yellow reusable bag on the door to the carport so I can take them back to the store… Where I forget to grab them each time I go to the store…

    Hey, They didn't end up under the kitchen sink. Or the recycling bin, either.

  6. I saw a house on my street this weekend with 2 old pizza boxes on the top of their recycle bin. I almost took it out and threw it on their porch, but they'd never understand. People are too lazy to learn (or read a list of) what can or cannot be recycled.

  7. What's really frustrating to me is that there is a recycling location for plastic bags. Most stores have a bin, but my local bins ALWAYS have trash in them. From wipes for the carts to cardboard boxes, even though there's an explicit sign that says bags only. It's people who just put it in anyway that are making the whole batch a waste over and over and over again.

  8. Another problem is that we keep telling consumers that it's up to them to solve the waste problem because only they can save the Earth… all the while most of our waste (see electricity, water, trash and pollution) come from large corporations and agriculture and not the individual. If I turn off my water while brushing my teeth, that cannot possibly offset inefficient watering practices of farmers or the water used to clean the dirt in mining operations, etc. We should do what we can to reduce our total waste as a whole, but we should be innovating where it matters most.

  9. Hi Joe, would it be possible to expand on the reasons behind the plastic needing to be clean? Isn't it supposed to be melted which will easily remove things like food?

  10. Create a space vacuum and send all the garbage to Mars. Let Elon figure it out.

  11. I absolutely hate that some organic chicken breasts in walmart is "Individually packaged" in plastic within the normal plastic and foam container. I get that you might want to save the freshness of each individual breast, but you can very easily solve that with reusable silicone bags or just putting it in a container to store.

  12. lol not really. I just throw in whatever i see trash or recycle and it's better than throwing it in the ground because a lot of people do that.

  13. This video is really great!! However, I think its too long for the common passerby. I think a good way to get your message out better would be to have another version of your video thats a minute or two.

  14. I've seen some of the junk people throw in recycling. I'm REALLY glad for the people who work at recycling plants because that's definitely a job I would not enjoy doing.

  15. Wait, what? You made the exact same terminator reference Rick and Morty made, a week before they made it? Lol. Neat coincidence.

  16. It's really hard to get anyone to watch a full 12 minute video so I'm going to try and spread the good word by being the annoying friend who won't stop talking about recycling~ 🙂

  17. Lol I thought this was a time capsule video of some sort. Turns out Europe is quite different with recycling.

  18. Tax credits, mail-in/instant rebates, coupons, sales. People like to save money, but more importantly people will pay more attention when they think they're saving money. If you want to put a dent in trash issues, make it worthwhile for them to do so (knowing that the average person is going to be spending money on gas/transportation, utilities, and space/time).

  19. Man, this episode was depressing…
    Hey, if plastic types 3,4,6 and 7 are NOT recyclabe, WHY ON EARTH DO THEY HAVE THE RECYCLING LOGO???

  20. I haven't heard about that "Starbucks cup" bit. How can I identify that "wax?"
    While I'm at it, I wanna ask, do I recycle bags of potato chips?

  21. We had this problem (recycling too much) in my local area. The county just decided to stop taking almost all recycling because it was too expensive to keep taking it and throwing it away.

  22. If you use single stream recycling, you should wash the plastics/aluminium if there is any chance they will contaminate paper/cardboard present in the same bin.
    But if they are separated, doing so would be pretty much a waste of energy, unless there's a lot of it, because they will be given a rinse at the processing plant anyway.

  23. You're not talking about the huge carbon footprint created by recycling facilities, separate specialized vehicles and the factories that produce these facilities and vehicles. Recycling is bullshit. It is for the most part a "thing we do" to make ourselves feel better about generating so much waste. It is intelligent on some levels in which companies that recycle materials such as aluminum and glass have systems in place to remanufacture products using their own proprietary blends. However, for the most part it is bullshit!

  24. Thanks for this video: this is amazing public service and I'm going to share it as much as I can!

  25. Ahhh… Garbage stuff.
    Shanghai, China started to enforce garbage sorting. All garbage should go into one of 4 bins, "recyclable", "harmful", "wet" (food waste), "dry" (household residual waste". However, the sorting guideline is confusing, and more confusing without knowledge about how garbage handling works.

    (Want an example? Bones. Chicken bones from your KFC go into the "wet" bin but pig or cow bones go into the "dry" bin, despite they are both, … well, bones. Reasoning behind this is that, "wet" bin garbage (reminder, food waste) goes into a grinder before going to the next steps (composter, or whatever), and the grinders can grind chicken bones but not pig or cow ones (they are too hard and too big).)

  26. Manufacturers that create plastic goods should come up with programs to get their packaging back, so they themselves make money by buying the resource they need back when its at its cheapest. Then they could streamline the system by using materials easiest to recycle and reuse for themselves. We used to do this with drink bottles and that system seemed to work out pretty good. There was always someone who cared about that money enough to pick them up and take them to where they needed to go. I could make enough during the summer to help my parents with my school clothes in the fall. Nowadays, we have plastic bottles that some recyclers won't take because the cap and the label are different kinds of plastic and they get thrown away. We either need to do something like this or just stop making plastic before we choke ourselves and our environment to death.

  27. "There's no technology imaginable that can get us out from under that mess". Yes there is, it's called incineration. With high enough temperature you just reduce almost anything to its base elements and then bury or recycle it. This is what we do in Scandinavia and we are a net importer of trash because there's not enough to burn.

  28. I'll admit, I've not as good at recycling as I could have been, and I intend to improve that. What I am apparently very good at is reusing. I see so many people, even some of my friends that are good about recycling, not reusing anything. Smelly old dish rag? That's going to get cleaned off and used to clean grease off of engine parts now. Plastic milk jugs? I'm cutting those up, tying them together, and making a bunch of skeleton Halloween decorations (google it!). Computer component died? I'm cutting it, making a collage out of it, painting it one color, and hanging it up as art. I've also used foam that was meant to be trash to better acoustics for recording/sound damping. Reused discarded wood to make drawer organizers. Taken a discarded staircase step to make a custom shelf/hutch. Taken furniture that was about to be thrown away and fixed it up, and actually RESOLD IT. You can make money off of reusing. There's so much stuff you can do with "trash" that will not only be useful, but save you money and often prevent you from buying MORE waste. Those plastic skeletons are a prime example. Instead of buying new decorations from stores, I'm using something that was about to be thrown away.

  29. @3:16: … if it weren't so easy.

    With that channel name, you've got to get the subjunctive tense correct.

  30. In japan (specifically near misakiguchi) it’s a HAVE TO, to recycle. And everyday is different material. Like Tuesday is aluminum and Wednesday is paper

    You don’t really have a choice

  31. I'd like things to be packaged with less plastic. There's no reason I need a window for a box of noodles. And noodles don't need to come in a plastic bag either.

  32. The age of recycling is over. It's time for REDUCING to take place. I just couldn't decide which is better to reduce. Human population or waste?

  33. Modern recycling is a problem because we created unrecyclible materials. Recucling is a total FARCE.

  34. "People won't be recycling if it wasn't as easy as today's."

    Meanwhile in Japan, they have certain days for certain trash (e.g. Glass thursday, burning trash Sunday, etc.), and it's already a norm that you also have to clean some of your stuffs before throwing it away, like milk carton. Let's be honest here, we're just lazy.

  35. I knew we needed to clean/rinse things before recycling, and I knew grease completely ruined cardboard and whatnot, but I had no idea why and I had no idea things like hot coffee cups weren't recyclables.
    I love learning new stuff, even if it ruins the old knowledge.

  36. How are people not realising this? I've been washing out containers for a while, and throwing away stuff with containation became second nature.

  37. In Germany they specifically tell you not to rinse your yogurt cups before throwing it into the bin

  38. We recycle because the Canadian gov makes it mandatory….. so they can sell it to China … To make crap we buy back.

  39. And you say India is dirty 😏
    Come to India will teach you how to make environment friendly life.

  40. Nope, nope, nope, nope. We will never be able to get a population as big as ours to all get on the same page like this. The only way that this will ever be solved is if we come up with a technology that will recycle all of our garbage.

  41. Don't kid yourself. There's nothing can and will be done about consumption, pollution and recycling. The only viable solution is the dramatic reduction of the human population, the rest is bullshit.

  42. I mean… plastic in a landfill is oil that's not being burned… Since we seem to be incapable of leaving oil in the ground, maybe at the end of the day it's a good thing?

  43. 6:30 Funny to see how you don't want to be involved in the dispute about those two regions which are chinese according to china, and indian according to india ^^

  44. Single stream recycling does not even exist in our country. Are Americans too stupid to know the difference between glass and paper, and clean stuff (pet bottles) and dirty stuff (macdonald cardboard with sauce) ?

  45. Maybe we're at the point to dummy it down to use only container materials we can easily recycle .. glass, aluminum, and limited easily recyclable plastic types. Ban all the other materials. Pizza use plastic or aluminum boxes that are easy to recycle. Change the TAX CODES that make it more expensive to use "new" containers.

    I guess I'm weird, I wash and recycle correctly. Hell I wash my aluminum foil…

  46. Just follow Germany's example. We're number 1 in recycling and you're number 25.

  47. Hey Joe, Tonin here. I truly love all your videos. But this one left me with a really wierd feeling… kind of depressing feeling. Here in Spain there is no recycling website or phone to call, no guidelines, no help at all. And the glass? you said that we should try not to broken it? that's something impossible, as how the containers are built… End is near.

  48. Yea it's pain were I work at plastic film recycle Center. We had to stop buying from places because it was impossible to recycle. Thank you for this video.

  49. Try not to break your glass.. uhh, the recycle people that pick it up do just that, because it gets broken and melted down to be reused, so they say broken is fine as long as it's in a bin that empties directly into the truck.

  50. In Italy we have paper/cardboard (blue), plastic/aluminium (yellow), glass (green) and organic (brown). Other special materials get collected in different ways like batteries, and we have what we call "ecological stations" to collect things like washing machines, forniture, and stuff like that.

  51. To be honest, although I recycle, most things in the "recycling bin" actually goes in landfills (well, in America, since nobody wants to buy our recyclables. IDK why we can't recycle it and use it ourselves.)

  52. What difference does it make if the glass is broken or not? As soon as it's dumped in the garbage truck some of it get broken, when it is unloaded from the truck it gets broken, when it is moved around at the recycling plant it gets broken. At every point in the process glass gets broken so why does it matter if its broken when it goes into the residential bin?

  53. What's actually wrong with it sitting in a landfill for 600 years?
    Here in the UK, we've created a lot of useful land from land fill.
    Takes several years but hey, we're turning trash into real estate!

  54. I live in Shanghai China (currently accessing this site illegally lol). China has been quite environmentally aware in the recent years, when the environment started to deteriorate. China is starting to implement trash recycling policies in large cities like Shanghai (Beijing will follow suit in 2020), which is actually quite new to the Chinese people who don't usually recycle. I heard a lot of complaints about the new strict recycling policies around my community, and I find them annoying too. But after hearing about how broken the American single-stream is working out, I'm actually quite glad that Shanghai decided to have 4 seperate bins for recycling, and now I can intuitively identify which bin each kind of waste is supposed to go in.
    (Side note: I've been to Japan for vacation before, and they have very refined categories for their recycling, which is quite impressive, I actually have no idea how the Japanese are able to sort through all the categories)

  55. only 1/3 companies investigated by CBC actually recycles the waste
    thats the real problem

  56. Sadly I say the only way to get people to actually adhere to the rules of proper recycling is to institute a penalty for doing it wrong OR an incentive for doing it right. Random inspections by the city to either penalize or reward would get a lot of people on board with doing it right. Otherwise, most people just don't care because it has zero impact on them at the time they toss the wrong thing in the recycling bin. Myself, you'll never find a single dirty or wrong thing in my bin, it's that important to me but I drive down by alley everyday seeing all sorts of garbage in my neibhors bins every single week. Irratates the hell out of me.

  57. Right. So, if there's a number on the recycling, it's too confusing; throw it away.

  58. Why are people blamed for the trash, when it is complete the fault of the companies that make them in the first place. The real change is not in the home it is in the manufacture. Less packing, and Manufacture lead recycling programs. Stop blaming people for what they have no control over and hold the real polluters responsible.

  59. Landfills provide a source of clean-burning methane. We shouldn't be afraid of them

  60. This is not a problem consumers should be expected to solve any more than climate change. Bigger forces are to blame here.

  61. People tend to forget the other 2 in the 3. Reduce and reuse. They make a bigger difference than recycling. There are countries that burn ALL their trash and recycle what they can recycle. Nordic countries make recycling part of their lifestyle. They ingrain it into their society. They have very little waste. And all that trash they burn, they use for energy. Truly recycling. We need to move away from plastics and laws need to enforce behaviors. We're ruining this planet.

  62. Wait, great vid but please… answer me, why do you call it "recycling bin" if it's just ONE bin for it all? In sweden we, the individual consumer recycle by separating out different materials in their designated bins. One for cardboard, one for glass, one for papers like newspapers and so and so on. We even have the ones for food waste, that you get special brown paper bags to put it in so that it can become some kind of gas for energy or be composted!
    We do the sorting ourselves but the bins are taken care of by companies (or a section of the state. Depends)… and you even get the incentive of getting some money back when you return soda bottles and aluminium cans. It can add up so everyone does it!
    Why even call it recycling if you just treat it like any old trash can and depend on other ppl to sort it?

  63. Single bin recycling or else not recycle? Scary lazy! We've had multiple recycling choices at least since the 80s.

  64. Great overview of what can and what can't be recycled. I garbage plastics and paper separately. In our country the "friendly" garbage bucks are not so wide spread, and, what is more frustrating, some garbage truck drivers just throw the garbage to be recycled out to the same truck where all other trash is carried. That's why my family and I have to deliever paper and plastics to a special point which it will be deliever to a proper place from. Actually, my family is not very curious about it; seems they do it because it's important for me, more than because it's important for environment; anyway, garbage is sorted.

  65. Here in Germany, we have 1. Household Waste (diapers), 2. Glass (all bottles), 3. Paper (only clean paper and cardboard boxes), 4. Compostable "Bio" stuff, all food, soiled cardboard, tissue papers etc), 5. Plastic and metal items. The system is a bit difficult on all household, because you need a container for all items, but containers are provided for by the government and the recycling works quite well.

  66. In the grand history of recycling bit, I missed the explanation of why things aren't sold in reusable containers with a deposit to encourage return for reuse.

  67. goddamit, this guy is spreading misinformation: plastic bags are 100% supposed to be put in our recycling bin. He makes 2 specific references at 4:38 and 9:15 that plastic bags are so obviously non-recyclable it's laughable, implying they're universally considered non-recyclable – so no, he doesn't get to weasel out of it cuz he said 'check your local rules' . People like this are why I had to deprogram my family specifically on this resource-consuming lie: https://www.toronto.ca/services-payments/recycling-organics-garbage/houses/what-goes-in-my-blue-bin/
    Items Accepted in the Blue Bin: "Grocery/retail shopping bags

    [ Soft, stretchy plastics ]

    Outer Milk bags

    Bread bags (non-foil)

    Non-zipper Sandwich bags

    Bulk food/produce bags

    Frozen fruit/vegetable bags (no stand-up pouches)

    Grocery/retail shopping bags

    Dry cleaning bags

    Newspaper/flyer, magazine bags (separate item from bag; recycle separately)

    Garden soil/manure/compost/road salt bags

    Diaper/feminine hygiene outer bags

    Over-wrap from toilet paper, napkins, paper towels, water/soft drink cases

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